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黄金科学技术 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (6): 930-943.doi: 10.11872/j.issn.1005-2518.2023.06.077

• 采选技术与矿山管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

露天台阶水介质间隔装药结构优选及对比试验研究

费鸿禄(),纪海楠(),山杰   

  1. 辽宁工程技术大学爆破技术研究院,辽宁 阜新 123000
  • 收稿日期:2023-05-22 修回日期:2023-07-28 出版日期:2023-12-31 发布日期:2024-01-26
  • 通讯作者: 纪海楠 E-mail:feihonglu@163.com;13700879015@163.com
  • 作者简介:费鸿禄(1963-),男,辽宁阜新人,教授,博士生导师,从事爆破工程科研与教学工作。feihonglu@163.com

Optimization and Comparative Experimental Study of Charge Structure of Water Medium Interval on Open-air Step

Honglu FEI(),Hainan JI(),Jie SHAN   

  1. Blasting Technology Research Institute of Liaoning University of Engineering and Technology,Fuxin 123000,Liaoning,China
  • Received:2023-05-22 Revised:2023-07-28 Online:2023-12-31 Published:2024-01-26
  • Contact: Hainan JI E-mail:feihonglu@163.com;13700879015@163.com

摘要:

针对露天台阶剥离爆破块度大、根底多等不良爆破效果,采用炮孔底部与中部两段水介质间隔装药结构进行露天台阶爆破效果优化。从理论上分析了空气介质与水介质间隔装药爆破的炮孔压力,通过试验优化了水介质间隔装药结构的单耗,在选定的最优单耗基础上利用ANSYS/LS-DYNA数值仿真软件,建立3组不同水介质间隔装药结构的三维模型,通过分析得到最优的水介质间隔装药结构,并与空气介质间隔装药结构进行爆破对比试验。结果表明:水介质间隔装药结构爆破可以显著提高炮孔压力,从而改善岩石破碎效果;上、下部水介质间隔均为1 m的装药结构爆破作用于岩体的应力更大且持续时间长,其爆破效果最优;优选的水介质间隔装药结构块度指标均表现出良好的占比情况。研究结果能够为水介质间隔装药结构露天台阶爆破提供参考。

关键词: 装药结构, 数值模拟, 水介质间隔, 露天台阶, 块度分析, 爆破效果

Abstract:

Aiming at the unfavorable blasting effects of the open-air step stripping blasting,such as large blocks and many root bottoms,the blasting effect of the open-air step was optimized by adopting the two-stage charge structure of water medium interval at the bottom of the blast hole and the middle part.To obtain the optimal two-stage charge structure of water medium interval in step stripping blasting of the open-pit mine,the blast hole pressure of the air-medium and water-medium interval charging were discussed from theoretical analysis,the unit consumption of water medium interval charge structure in Wujiata open-pit mine was optimized by experiments.On the basis of the selected optimal unit consumption,three groups of three-dimensional models of different water medium interval charge structure were established by using ANSYS/LS-DYNA numerical simu-lation software.The optimal water medium interval charge structure was selected by analyzing the stress change curve of rock mass,rock mass damage range,and free surface tensile crack area ratio at the bottom of the blast hole,the middle of the lower charge,and the upper position of the blast hole.The blasting effect was evaluated from the index of boulder yield by the blasting comparative experimental with the charge structure of air medium interval.The research results show that blasting with a charge structure of a water medium interval can significantly increase the blasting pressure and improve the rock-crushing effect.The optimal unit consumption of water medium interval charge structure blasting in Wujiata open-pit mine is 0.33~0.34 kg/m3,saving 0.03~0.04 kg/m3 unit consumption of explosives than before. The blasting of a charge structure with an upper water medium interval of 1 m and the lower water medium interval of 1 m has more stress on the rock mass and has a long duration,the damage is evenly distributed along the blast hole,the range is regular,and the free surface tensile crack area accounts for the highest proportion,and its blasting effect optimal.The blasting fragmentation indexes of the optimal water medium interval charge structure all show a good proportion.The research results can provide a reference for the application of water medium interval charge structure in open-pit step blasting.

Key words: charge structure, numerical simulation, water medium interval, open-air step, fragmentation analy-sis, blasting effect

中图分类号: 

  • TD235

图1

不同耦合介质的炮孔压力"

表1

炸药单耗优化分析"

组别装药结构炸药单耗/(kg·m-3爆破效果
70 cm以上块度占比/%爆堆抛掷距离/m
对照组炸药(5.5 m)—空气(1.5 m)—炸药(2.5 m)—填塞(3.5 m)0.3713.225.0
试验组1炸药(5.4 m)—水(1.6 m)—炸药(2.5 m)—填塞(3.5 m)0.364.228.0
试验组2炸药(5.2 m)—水(1.8 m)—炸药(2.5 m)—填塞(3.5 m)0.357.526.5
试验组3炸药(5.0 m)—水(2.0 m)—炸药(2.5 m)—填塞(3.5 m)0.349.525.8
试验组4炸药(4.8 m)—水(2.2 m)—炸药(2.5 m)—填塞(3.5 m)0.3315.523.3

图2

两段水介质装药结构示意图"

图3

试验组3的爆堆块度测量和爆破效果"

图4

不同装药结构二分之一数值模型"

图5

RHT模型极限面"

图6

脆性多孔材料压缩过程"

图7

RHT本构模型"

表2

岩体模型参数"

参数名称数值参数名称数值
密度ρ/(kg?m-32 400拉压强度比Ft*0.09
剪切模量/GPa26.7剪压强度比Fs*0.21
单轴抗压强度fc/MPa49Hugoniot多项式参数A1/GPa30.27
剪切模量缩减系数ξ0.5Hugoniot多项式参数A2/GPa48.59
状态方程参数T1/GPa25.45Hugoniot多项式参数A3/GPa31.04
状态方程参数B01.22拉压子午比参数Q00.6805
状态方程参数B11.22罗德角相关系数B0.0105
压实压力Plock/GPa6失效面参数A2.1
压碎压力Pcrush/MPa20.2失效面指数N0.637
拉伸应变率指数βt0.0115压缩应变率指数βc0.0083
压缩屈服面参数Gc*0.4残余应力强度参数Af1.61
拉伸屈服面参数Gt*0.7残余应力强度指数Nf0.6
损伤参数D10.04损伤参数D21
初始孔隙度α01.08孔隙度指数Np3

表3

炸药材料及状态方程参数"

参数数值参数数值
密度ρ/(kg·m-3850R13.91
损伤参数D/(m·s-13 000R21.52
爆压P/GPa5.15ω0.33
A/GPa494s/(J·m-32.48×109
B/GPa1.89V1

表4

填塞材料模型参数"

参数数值参数数值
密度ρ/(kg·m-32 130μ0.27
初始内能E/MPa10.4σ/MPa0.7

表5

水材料及状态方程参数"

参数数值参数数值
ρ0/(kg·m-31 000γ00.5
C1 480α1.3937
S11.89E256
S23.91V1.0
S31.52

图8

不同装药结构应力云图"

图9

不同装药结构各单元等效应力时程曲线"

图10

岩体内部损伤"

图11

不同装药结构自由面拉伸裂纹"

表6

不同装药结构自由面拉伸裂纹面积占比"

装药结构自由面拉伸裂纹面积占比/%
18.39
20.77
20.35

图12

不同爆区示意图"

图13

间隔水袋实物图"

表7

对比试验爆破参数"

间隔介质炸药单耗/(kg·m-3炮孔直径/mm台阶高度/m排距/m孔距/m超深/m布孔方式延期时间
0.3417012571梅花形孔间45 ms,排间124 ms
空气0.3717012571梅花形孔间45 ms,排间124 ms

图14

空气介质间隔装药结构爆破后爆堆块度分析图"

图15

水介质间隔装药结构爆破后爆堆块度分析图"

图16

空气介质间隔装药结构爆破后爆堆块度数据处理图"

图17

水介质间隔装药结构爆破后爆堆块度数据处理图"

表8

空气介质和水介质间隔装药爆破块度分布"

参数空气介质间隔装药爆破块度分布/%水介质间隔装药爆破块度分布/%
<10 cm10~30 cm30~50 cm50~70 cm>70 cm<10 cm10~30 cm30~50 cm50~70 cm>70 cm
平均值18.2025.9825.2617.2113.3515.5433.0227.4218.795.23
图片A占比19.7027.9822.7316.2813.3115.4435.1827.1817.594.61
图片B占比16.7023.9727.8018.1313.4015.6530.8627.6519.985.86
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