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黄金科学技术 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (6): 1023-1034.doi: 10.11872/j.issn.1005-2518.2023.06.081

• 采选技术与矿山管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄金行业尾矿处置政策与综合利用实践

孟文文1(),李鹏1,2()   

  1. 1.山东黄金集团有限公司, 山东 济南 250000
    2.中南大学资源加工与生物工程学院, 湖南 长沙 410083
  • 收稿日期:2023-05-31 修回日期:2023-12-06 出版日期:2023-12-31 发布日期:2024-01-26
  • 通讯作者: 李鹏 E-mail:mengwenwen@sd-gold.com;Lp@sd-gold.com
  • 作者简介:孟文文(1985-),女,山东禹城人,工程师,从事黄金矿山环境保护、碳达峰、碳中和、固废综合利用与处置方面的研究工作。mengwenwen@sd-gold.com

Tailings Disposal Policy and Comprehensive Utilization Practice in Gold Industry

Wenwen MENG1(),Peng LI1,2()   

  1. 1.Shandong Gold Group Co. , Ltd. , Jinan 250000, Shandong, China
    2.School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan, China
  • Received:2023-05-31 Revised:2023-12-06 Online:2023-12-31 Published:2024-01-26
  • Contact: Peng LI E-mail:mengwenwen@sd-gold.com;Lp@sd-gold.com

摘要:

从黄金尾矿综合利用与处置政策形势及现状入手,梳理了我国尾矿产量及综合利用的基本情况、黄金行业尾矿产生情况以及国家在黄金行业尾矿综合利用方面的相关政策法规。汇总整理了国内外黄金尾矿综合回收、生产建筑材料、井下充填、生态修复及氰渣综合利用与无害化处置等方面的相关技术研究与应用进展情况,并基于此综合预判了“无废”矿山建设、尾矿综合利用产业化、规模化发展以及新技术、新工艺的发展趋势,提出了在当前政策背景下,推动尾矿实现减量化、资源化和无害化,推进矿业绿色低碳高质量转型的路径。研究结果可为黄金尾矿、氰渣等综合利用和处置工作提供有益借鉴。

关键词: 黄金行业, 尾矿, 综合利用, 氰渣, 无害化处置, 应用实践

Abstract:

Based on the current policy situation and status of comprehensive utilization and disposal for tailings and cyanide tailings in gold industry,this paper analyzed the basic situation of tailings production and comprehensive utilization in China from 2011 to 2021,the production situation of tailings in the gold industry,and the relevant policies and regulations in the comprehensive utilization of tailings in the gold industry.The research and application practice progress of gold tailings comprehensive utilization,production of building materials,underground filling,ecological restoration,and harmless disposal of cyanide tailings at home and abroad was summarized.And on this basis,comprehensively study and analyze on the development trend,prospect and the next work direction was conducted to provide reference for the comprehensive utilization and disposal of gold tailings.Research shows that China’s current policy system for comprehensive utilization of tailings and harmless treatment technology of cyanide slag is gradually improving,and the scale and efficiency of industrial technology and industry development are also in a stage of gradual improvement.With the continuous emergence of new technologies,methods and processes,the comprehensive utilization rate and utilization level of gold industry tailings will gradually be effectively improved. At the same time,in the process of practice,due to imperfect policies and measures,immature technology,poor sales of recycled products and other reasons,there are still constraints in the procedures and industrialization of some projects.It is urgent to actively and widely participate in the government,enterprises,research institutes and the whole society,active cooperation in term of policy,technology,market open up the upstream and downstream cooperation chain,and form a development model of mutual coordination and mutual promotion through policy guidance,technical support and market leadership.Only in this way can we promote the stable,healthy and orderly development of the industry,provide favorable guarantee for the high-quality sustainable transformation and upgrading of China’s mining economy.

Key words: gold industry, tailings, comprehensive utilization, cyanide tailings, harmless disposal, application practice

中图分类号: 

  • TD926.4

图1

2011—2021年我国尾矿产量及综合利用情况(石晓莉等,2022;国家统计局等,2023)"

表1

2011—2021年黄金产量及尾矿产量对比"

年份黄金产量/t黄金尾矿产生量/(亿t)
2011360.9572.01
2012403.0472.12
2013428.1632.14
2014451.7992.28
2015450.0532.35
2016453.4862.45
2017426.1422.29
2018401.1192.16
2019380.2261.98
2020365.3451.88
2021328.9831.95

表2

黄金行业尾矿综合利用相关政策法规"

年份发布部门政策名称主要内容
2010工业和信息化部工业和信息化部关于印发《金属尾矿综合利用专项规划(2010~2015)》的通知(工信部联规[2010]174号)重点攻克尾矿中残留贵金属高效再选、氰化法替代技术、伴生有色金属综合回收、非金属矿物高值利用、低成本高效胶结充填采矿和尾矿库高效复垦等关键技术难题;支持无废矿山建设
2013财政部矿产资源节约与综合利用专项资金管理办法(财建[2013]81号)重点支持低品位金矿及共伴生、尾矿资源综合利用
2018全国人大常委会《中华人民共和国循环经济促进法》使用或生产列入国家清洁生产、资源综合利用等鼓励名录的技术、工艺、设备或产品,按照有关规定享受税收优惠;对符合国家产业政策的节能、节水、节地、节材、资源综合利用等项目,金融机构应给予信贷支持
2019国家发展与改革委员会《产业结构调整指导目录(2019年本)》鼓励从尾矿及废石中回收黄金
2020生态环境部《黄金工业污染防治技术政策》鼓励浮选尾矿用于露天采坑或井下采空区回填,或作为建材等方式进行综合利用
2020全国人大常委会《中华人民共和国固体废物污染环境防治法》坚持减量化、资源化和无害化的原则;鼓励和支持固体废物产生单位研究开发固体废物综合利用、集中处置等新技术;从事固体废物综合利用等固废污染环境防治工作的企业,依照相关规定享受税收优惠
2021国家发展与改革委员会《关于“十四五”大宗固体废弃物综合利用的指导意见》(发改环资〔2021〕381号)稳步推进尾矿有价组分提取利用;推动采矿废石用于制备砂石骨料、陶粒和干混砂浆等砂源替代材料和胶凝回填利用;探索尾矿在生态环境治理领域的利用
2021国家发展与改革委员会《“十四五”循环经济发展规划》加强对低品位矿、共伴生矿、难选冶矿和尾矿等的综合利用;进一步扩大大宗固废在生态修复、绿色开采、绿色建材和交通工程等领域的利用规模
2021国务院《2030年前碳达峰行动方案》鼓励建材企业使用尾矿渣等作为原料或水泥混合材;支持大宗固废大掺量、规模化、高值化利用,并鼓励其应用于替代原生非金属矿、砂石等资源
2021财政部《资源综合利用企业所得税优惠目录(2021 年版)》建材产品原料70%以上来自所列资源;生产其他产品的产品原料100%来自所列资源
2021生态环境部《“十四五”时期“无废城市”建设工作方案》推广尾矿用于井下充填回填;推动大宗工业固体废物在提取有价组分、生产建材、筑路、生态修复和土壤治理等领域的规模化利用
2022工业和信息化部《关于印发加快推动工业资源综合利用实施方案的通知》(工信部联节〔2022〕9号)加快工业固废规模化利用;提升工业固废在生产纤维材料、微晶玻璃、超细化填料、低碳水泥、固废基高性能混凝土、预制件和节能型建筑材料等领域的高值化利用水平

表3

黄金行业氰渣无害化处置相关政策"

年份发布部门政策名称主要内容
2018环境保护部《黄金行业氰渣污染控制技术规范》氰化尾渣作为回填骨料的替代原料应进行脱氢处理并满足相关要求
2019国家发展与改革委员会《产业结构调整指导目录(2019年版)》鼓励危险废物(医疗废物)及含重金属废物安全处置技术设备开发制造及处置中心建设及运营
2020生态环境部《国家危险废物名录(2021年版)》满足《黄金行业氰渣污染控制技术规范》(HJ943)要求进入尾矿库处置或进入水泥窑协同处置过程不按危险废物管理;在环境风险可控的情况下,根据省级生态环境部门确定的方案,实行危险废物“点对点”综合利用过程不按危险废物管理
2020生态环境部《黄金工业污染防治技术政策》鼓励采用无氰或低氰浸金药剂提金;鼓励采用焙烧烟气、工艺废水对氰化尾渣进行无害化处理等以废治废技术
2021国务院国务院办公厅关于印发强化危险废物监管和利用处置能力改革实施方案的通知(国办函〔2021〕47号)落实“放管服”改革要求,鼓励采取多元投资和市场化方式建设规模化危险废物利用设施;在环境风险可控的前提下,探索危险废物“点对点”定向利用许可证豁免管理

图2

3种氰化提金工艺流程图"

表4

黄金尾矿用于生产建筑材料分类(陈兰兰等,2020)"

材料名称主要原料组成尾矿可替代的原料名称掺入的尾矿量/%产品特点
建筑砖体以黏土为主,加入石灰、石膏、水泥等添加剂黏土、胶凝材料20~100抗压强度高、性能好
水泥石灰石、河沙、黏土河沙、黏土30抗压强度、透水深度、孔隙率、扛冻融循环能力和碳化深度均得到改善
混凝土胶凝材料;粗细骨料和石膏、石灰等添加剂粗细骨料、硅酸盐水泥20~40强度高、耐热耐久、保温隔热、已于加工、节能环保
陶瓷原料长石、黏土、石英长石、黏土生成的矿物相对稳定、材料性能良好、满足工艺要求
陶粒页岩、黏土、煤粉黏土50~90质量轻、强度高、各项指标良好
泡沫陶瓷氧化铝、高岭土硅铝氧化物60~80轻质、高强、防水、无毒、耐腐蚀
陶瓷釉料石英、长石、黏土长石、黏土色泽度良好、经济环保
微晶玻璃基础玻璃中添加一定的晶核剂硅酸盐、铝硅酸盐、石英等矿物成分60~75分布均匀、结晶度高、致密性好

表5

无害化脱氰处理技术分类(袁嘉声等,2021)"

类型技术
氰化物破坏法碱性氯化法、二氧化硫—空气氧化法(因科法)、过氧化氢氧化法、臭氧氧化法、加压水解法、电解氧化法、 高铁酸盐氧化法、过氧硫酸氧化法、高温分解法或焚烧法
氰化物转化法锌盐沉淀法(基科法)、铁盐沉淀法、铜盐沉淀法
氰化物回收法酸化回收法(AVR法)、离子交换法
其他压滤—洗涤工艺、三废协同净化法
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