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黄金科学技术 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (6): 873-887.doi: 10.11872/j.issn.1005-2518.2023.06.073

• 矿产勘查与资源评价 •    下一篇

甘肃花牛山金矿床成矿流体性质及矿床成因

宋高瑞(),翟新伟(),王二腾,武磊,陈万峰,郑菲菲,王海东,王金荣   

  1. 兰州大学地质科学与矿产资源学院,甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2023-05-15 修回日期:2023-10-17 出版日期:2023-12-31 发布日期:2024-01-26
  • 通讯作者: 翟新伟 E-mail:songgr21@lzu.edu.cn;zhaixw926@lzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:宋高瑞(2000-),男,甘肃文县人,硕士研究生,从事构造与成矿研究工作。songgr21@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家第二次青藏科考项目“活动断裂与地震灾害”(2019QZKK0901);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(lzujbky-2023-it17)

Properties of Ore-forming Fluids and Genesis of the Huaniushan Gold Deposit in Gansu Province

Gaorui SONG(),Xinwei ZHAI(),Erteng WANG,Lei WU,Wanfeng CHEN,Feifei ZHENG,Haidong WANG,Jinrong WANG   

  1. School of Earth Sciences,Lanzhou University,Lanzhou 730000,Gansu,China
  • Received:2023-05-15 Revised:2023-10-17 Online:2023-12-31 Published:2024-01-26
  • Contact: Xinwei ZHAI E-mail:songgr21@lzu.edu.cn;zhaixw926@lzu.edu.cn

摘要:

花牛山金矿位于北山造山带南部,矿体产出于印支期钾长花岗岩脉与大理岩的接触部位,成矿期次可划分为早期矽卡岩期和晚期石英硫化物期(主成矿期)。主成矿期中石英和方解石的流体包裹体性质表明,Ⅰ、Ⅱ阶段成矿流体均具有中低温、中盐、中高密度以及含CO2和CH4的特征,属H2O-CO2-NaCl体系;温度—盐度特征指示成矿流体主要为岩浆水和大气降水混合来源;方解石δ13CV-PDB平均值为1.7‰,δ18OV-PDB平均值为-22.5‰,δ18OV-SMOW平均值为7.69‰,O同位素呈强烈分异特征,暗示着成矿流体为岩浆水和大气降水混合来源。矿石中黄铁矿S同位素δ34S平均值为-9.73‰,其较大的负值或与围岩地层有关,指示该矿床硫源或为岩浆与地层的混合来源。成矿深度及压力特征表明花牛山金矿属于浅成型矿床。综合分析认为,花牛山金矿床为中低温热液交代型(矽卡岩型)金矿床,可能是晚三叠世时期花牛山地区多期次的后造山岩石圈伸展和幔源岩浆底侵作用导致来自深处的成矿流体沿着裂隙断裂向上移动,与围岩发生反应并与大气降水混合,随着压力降低,成矿物质沉淀富集,随之发生金成矿作用。

关键词: 流体包裹体, 成矿流体, 成矿深度, 岩浆底侵, 矽卡岩型金矿床, 花牛山金矿

Abstract:

The Huaniushan gold deposit is located in the south of Beishan orogenic belt.The orebody is hosted in the contact zone between the Indosinian K-feldspar granite veins and marble.The mineralization process can be divided into early skarn stage and late quartz sulfide stage(main metallogenic stage).The fluid inclusion properties of quartz and calcite in the main metallogenic period indicate that the ore-forming fluid has the characteristics of medium-low temperature,medium salt,medium-high density,and with CO2 and CH4,which belongs to the H2O-CO2-NaCl system.The temperature-salinity characteristics indicate that the ore-forming fluid is the mixture of magmatic water and atmospheric precipitation.The average value of δ13CV-PDBδ18OV-PDB and δ18OV-SMOW of calcite is 1.7‰,-22.5‰ and 7.69‰,respectively,and the O isotope strong differentiation suggest that magmatic water mixed with atmospheric precipitation to form ore-forming fluids.The average value of sulfur isotope δ34S of pyrite in the ore is -9.73‰,and its large negative value may be related to the surrounding rock strata,indicating that the sulfur source of the deposit may be a mixed source of magma and strata.The metallogenic depth and pressure features hint that the Huaniushan gold deposit belongs to the shallow metal-logenic depth.Comprehensive analysis shows that Huaniushan gold deposit is a medium-low temperature hydrothermal metasomatic (skarn type) gold deposit.Summarily,in the late Triassic,Huaniushan area expe-rienced multi-stage post-orogenic lithospheric extension and mantle-derived magma underplating,the ore-forming fluid produced in the deep and moved upward along the fracture,reacted with the surrounding rock and mixed with atmospheric precipitation.With the pressure decreasing,the ore-forming materials were precipitated and enriched,and initiated the gold mineralization.

Key words: fluid inclusions, ore-forming fluid, metallogenic depth, magma underplating, skarn-type gold deposit, Huaniushan gold mine

中图分类号: 

  • P618.51

图1

北山造山带大地构造位置示意图(a)(修改自Xiao et al.,2010a)和区域地质简图(b)(修改自王钏屹等,2018)1.前寒武纪地层;2.早古生代地层;3.晚古生代地层;4.中、新生代地层;5.断裂;6.花岗岩;7.国界线;8.铅锌矿;9.钼矿;10.铜矿;11.金矿"

图2

花牛山金矿地质简图(a)和剖面简图(b)1.第四系;2.震旦系洗肠井群三岩组三岩段;3.震旦系洗肠井群三岩组二岩段;4.震旦系洗肠井群三岩组一岩段;5.晚三叠世花岗岩;6.中石炭世花岗闪长岩;7.花岗岩脉;8.花岗斑岩脉; 9.英云闪长岩脉;10.石英脉;11. 矽卡岩;12.花牛山金矿体;13.断裂;14.剖面线;15.大理岩;16.黑云母长英质角岩"

图3

花牛山金矿床矿石特征(a)矽卡岩;(b)石英脉与围岩接触部位的黄铁矿和磁黄铁矿条带;(c)块状构造;(d)浸染状和条带状构造;Sk-矽卡岩;Po-磁黄铁矿;Py-黄铁矿;Qtz-石英"

图4

花牛山金矿床石英硫化物期Ⅰ、Ⅱ阶段流体包裹体显微照片(a)Ⅰ阶段液相包裹体;(b)Ⅱ阶段液相包裹体;(c)Ⅰ阶段气相包裹体;(d)Ⅱ阶段气相包裹体;(e)Ⅰ阶段富液二相包裹体;(f)Ⅱ阶段富液二相包裹体;(g)Ⅰ阶段富气二相包裹体;(h)Ⅱ阶段富气二相包裹体;(i)Ⅰ阶段含CO2三相包裹体;L-液相;V-气相"

图5

花牛山金矿床石英硫化物期Ⅰ、Ⅱ阶段包裹体激光拉曼光谱图"

表1

花牛山金矿床成矿流体温度、盐度和密度"

成矿

阶段

寄主

矿物

均一温度

/℃

冰点

/℃

盐度

w(NaCl)]/%

密度

/(g·cm-3

Ⅰ阶段石英158.4~358.4-15.3~3.90.18~18.880.71~1.02
Ⅱ阶段石英110.4~210.8-19.0~5.40.35~21.680.89~1.11
Ⅱ阶段方解石122.8~231.8-16.3~5.80.35~19.680.92~1.08

表2

花牛山金矿S、C、O同位素测定结果"

样品编号

矿物

(岩石)

ΔSV-CDT

/‰

δ13CV-PDB

/‰

δ18OV-PDB

/‰

δ18OV-SMOW

/‰

HN-Ⅰ-01-1黄铁矿-10.6---
HN-Ⅰ-01-2黄铁矿-10.8---
HN-Ⅰ-07黄铁矿-7.7---
HN-Ⅰ-11黄铁矿-9.8---
HN-Ⅰ-03方解石-1.5-13.716.8
HN-Ⅰ-03-2方解石-1.1-13.616.9
HN-Ⅰ-05方解石-2.6-1218.6
HN-Ⅱ-25-1方解石--0.6-30-0.1
HN-Ⅱ-25-2方解石-2.2-35.4-5.5
HN-Ⅱ-33-2方解石-2.7-13.716.8
HN-Ⅱ-33-3方解石-2.1-13.117.4
HN-Ⅱ-33-4方解石-1.7-35.1-5.3
HN-Ⅱ-33-8方解石-2-36.1-6.4

图6

花牛山金矿成矿流体均一温度、盐度和密度频数直方图"

图7

花牛山金矿成矿期方解石δ13CPDB-δ18OSMOW图(底图据刘家军等,2004;周家喜等,2012)"

图8

花牛山金矿流体包裹体均一温度—盐度相关图(底图据Beane,1983)"

图9

花牛山金矿床成矿压力和成矿深度频数直方图"

图10

花牛山金矿床成矿流体温度—盐度—密度关系图(据Bodnar,1993)diagram of ore-forming fluid in Huaniushan gold deposit (according to Bodnar,1993)"

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