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黄金科学技术 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 74-89.doi: 10.11872/j.issn.1005-2518.2021.01.138

• 矿产勘查与资源评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

湖南通道地区金矿床成矿流体特征及成矿物质来源:来自流体包裹体、H-O-S同位素的证据

谢玉华1,高华1,张哲1,杨亮1,柯新星1,刘晓敏1,罗建镖2,3,刘琦2,3,许坤林2,3,刘继顺2,3,王智琳2,3,孔华2,3(),刘飚2,3   

  1. 1.湖南省核工业地质局三〇一大队,湖南 长沙 410114
    2.中南大学有色金属成矿预测与地质环境监测教育部重点实验室,湖南 长沙 410083
    3.中南大学地球科学与信息物理学院,湖南 长沙 410083
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-29 修回日期:2020-11-29 出版日期:2021-02-28 发布日期:2021-03-22
  • 通讯作者: 孔华 E-mail:konghua2006@126.com
  • 作者简介:谢玉华(1967-),女,广西柳州人,高级工程师,从事地质找矿勘查工作。982700168 @qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    湖南省核工业地质局科研项目“雪峰弧形带西南段金、锑矿成矿条件分析及找矿前景研究”(KY2018-301-01)

Ore-forming Fluid Characteristics and Material Source of Gold Deposits in Tongdao County,Hunan Province:Evidence from Fluid Inclusions and H-O-S Isotopes

Yuhua XIE1,Hua GAO1,Zhe ZHANG1,Liang YANG1,Xinxing KE1,Xiaomin LIU1,Jianbiao LUO2,3,Qi LIU2,3,Kunlin XU2,3,Jishun LIU2,3,Zhilin WANG2,3,Hua KONG2,3(),Biao LIU2,3   

  1. 1.301 Brigade,Hunan Nuclear Industry Geological Bureau,Changsha 410114,Hunan,China
    2.Key Laboratory of Metallogenic Prediction of Nonferrous Metals and Geological Environment Monitoring,Ministry of Education,Central South University,Changsha 410083,Hunan,China
    3.School of Geoscience and Info-physics,Central South University,Changsha 410083,Hunan,China
  • Received:2020-07-29 Revised:2020-11-29 Online:2021-02-28 Published:2021-03-22
  • Contact: Hua KONG E-mail:konghua2006@126.com

摘要:

通道地区金矿床位于雪峰弧形金锑矿带西南段,主要包括茶溪、金坑和黄垢3个中小型金矿床,矿脉发育在前寒武系浅变质地层中,受断裂控制明显,矿石类型为石英脉型与蚀变岩型。通过野外地质调查、显微鉴定、流体包裹体测试及H、O、S同位素分析,对成矿流体特征与成矿物质来源进行约束。分析结果表明:成矿过程主要划分为2个阶段,一是石英+黄铁矿+毒砂+绢云母+金阶段;二是石英+绢云母+少量金阶段;其中茶溪矿区第一阶段石英包裹体均一温度为155~297 ℃,峰值为210~220 ℃,盐度[w(NaCl)]为4.9%~11.7%,第二阶段石英包裹体均一温度为135~233 ℃,峰值为160~170 ℃,盐度为3.3%~9.7%;金坑矿区第一阶段石英包裹体均一温度为202~261 ℃,峰值为210~220 ℃,盐度为5.6%~10.1%,第二阶段石英包裹体均一温度为134~203 ℃,峰值为150~160 ℃,盐度为3.8%~8.8%;黄垢矿区第一阶段石英包裹体均一温度为176~319 ℃,峰值为220~240 ℃,盐度为5.1%~11.7%;3个矿床中成矿流体的H-O同位素组成具有相似的变化趋势,第一阶段δ18Ofluid变化较小,分布在+4.95‰~+6.95‰之间,第二阶段δ18Ofluid分布在+1.08‰~ +1.38‰之间,而δD值变化较大,分布在-83‰~-33‰之间,因此第一阶段成矿流体为中温中低盐度的流体,来源以变质流体为主,可能有岩浆热液的叠加,第二阶段成矿流体为低温低盐度的流体,指示有大气水的混入。另外,黄垢矿区黄铁矿中的δ34S值分布范围较广,为-15.79‰~+3.88‰;金坑矿区硫化物δ34S值较为集中,为-5.02‰~+0.74‰。结合区域地层中S同位素组成与黄铁矿电子探针分析,认为载金硫化物硫源(δ34S值接近零值)主要为深部岩浆,而不含金或含微量金的硫化物(δ34S值为负值)来源于围岩地层。

关键词: 雪峰弧形构造带, 金矿床, 石英流体包裹体, H-O-S同位素, 流体特征, 通道地区, 湖南省

Abstract:

A large number of medium-large gold deposits developed in the Xuefeng arc-shaped structural belt,which mainly composed of precambrian strata and undergo low-grade metamorphism with multi-stage tectonic movement.In addition,long-term large-scale magma activity (e.g. Silurian,Triassic) occurred in the Taojiang-Chengbu fault zone on the eastern margin of Xuefeng Mountain.Due to the overprint of regional metamorphic hydrothermal and deep magma hydrothermal fluid,both metamorphic hydrothermal and magmatic hydrothermal Au-Sb deposits are occurred in Xuefeng Mountain region.Previous research and exploration mainly focused on gold deposits in the northern and middle district of the metallogenic belt,that is lacking in the southern district (e.g. Huitong,Jingzhou,Tongdao).The gold deposits in the Tongdao County are composed of the Chaxi,Jinkeng,and Huanggou small-medium quartz vein and altered rock type gold deposits,which developed in low-grade precambrian metamorphic strata and controlled by faults.To constrain the ore forming fluids characteristics and source,field investigations,microscopic rock-mineral determination,fluid inclusion and H-O-S isotope analysis were completed in this research.The representative ore-bearing quartz vein samples were selected to identify the petrographic characteristics of inclusions for micro-thermal analysis.In addition,the H,O isotope composition were analyzed with a single mineral of quartz and the in-situ S isotope analysis of gold-bearing sulfides (e.g. pyrite and arsenopyrite) are obtained by LA-ICP-MS.Analysis results show that it can be divided into two metallogenic stages,stage Ⅰ is quartz+pyrite+arsenopyrite+sericite+gold,stage Ⅱ is quartz+sericite+minor gold.The homogenization temperature of stage Ⅰ quartz fluid inclusions in the Chaxi deposit is 155~297 ℃ with a peak value of 210~220 ℃ and the salinity[w(NaCl)] is 4.9%~11.7%.The homogenization temperature of stage Ⅱ quartz fluid inclusions in the Chaxi deposit is 135~233 ℃ with a peak value of 160~170 ℃ and the salinity is 3.3%~9.7%.The homogenization temperature of quartz fluid inclusions in the Jinkeng deposit is 202~261 ℃ with a peak value of 210~220 ℃ and the salinity is 5.6%~10.1%.The homogenization temperature of stage Ⅱ quartz fluid inclusions in the Jinkeng deposit is 134~203 ℃ with a peak value of 150~160 ℃ and the salinity is 3.8%~8.8%.The homogenization temperature of stage Ⅰ quartz fluid inclusions in the Huanggou deposit is 176~319 ℃ with a peak value of 220~240 ℃ and the salinity is 5.1%~11.7%.The H-O isotopic composition of the ore-forming fluids in the three deposits has a similar evolution trend:The stage Ⅰ δ18Ofluid change from +4.95‰ to +6.95‰ and the stage Ⅱ δ18Ofluid change from +1.08‰ to +1.38‰,while the δD value changes greatly,from -83‰ to -33‰.Therefore,the stage Ⅰ ore-forming fluid is a medium-temperature and medium-low-salinity fluid,the source of which are dominated by metamorphic water with overprint of deep magma water and the stage Ⅱ ore-forming fluid is a low-temperature and low-salinity fluid,indicating an addition of meteoric water.In addition,the δ34S values of pyrite in the Huanggou deposit is scattered,ranging from -15.79‰ to +3.88‰,while the δ34S values of sulfide in the Jinkeng deposit is concentrated,which is -5.02‰~+0.74‰.Combined with the sulfur isotope composition of regional strata and the EPMA analysis of pyrite,it is believed that the sulfur source of gold-bearing sulfide (δ34S value near zero) is mainly originated from deep magmatic,but no gold or with trace gold content sulfide (negative δ34S value) are derived from wall rock formation.

Key words: Xuefeng arc-shaped structural belt, gold deposit, quartz fluid inclusion, H-O-S isotope, fluid characteristics, Tongdao area, Hunan Province

中图分类号: 

  • P618.51

图1

雪峰弧形构造带地质简图(杨冲,2012)1.白垩系—上第三系;2.上三叠统—侏罗系;3.泥盆系—三叠系;4.震旦系—志留系;5.板溪群和冷家溪群;6.断裂构造;7.花岗岩体;8.矿点;9.金矿;10.锑矿;11.钨矿"

图2

金坑—黄垢—茶溪金矿地质图(熊建忠,2017)(a)通道地区地质简图;(b)金坑矿区地质图;(c)黄垢矿区地质图;(d)茶溪矿区地质图1.下震旦统洪江组;2.下震旦统南沱组;3.下震旦统大塘坡组;4.下震旦统湘锰组;5.下震旦统江口组第三段;6.下震旦统江口组第二段;7.下震旦统江口组第一段;8.板溪群漠滨组上段;9.板溪群漠滨组下段;10.基性岩;11.正断层及产状;12.逆断层及产状;13.平移断层;14.性质不明断层;15.地层界线;16.矿脉及编号;17.推测矿脉;18.平行不整合界线;19.矿区范围"

图3

通道地区金矿床石英脉野外特征(a)早期变形石英脉,石香肠构造;(b)顺层石英脉;(c)切层石英脉;(d)成矿后石英脉;(e)含矿石英脉;(f)网脉状石英脉,含硫化物;(g)石英脉分支复合及膨大收缩;(h)含硫化物的硅化角砾岩;(i)含硫化物石英脉分支复合;(j)陡倾脉分支缓倾石英脉;(k)陡倾脉壁有硫化物,对称分布;(l)陡倾脉切割缓倾石英脉;(a)~(d)样品采自金坑矿床;(e)~(h)样品采自黄垢矿床;(i)~(l)样品采自茶溪矿床"

图4

流体包裹体测温样品特征(a)第一阶段含硫化物团块石英脉(样品编号:180724-04);(b)第一阶段含黄铁矿毒砂石英脉(样品编号:180724-05);(c)第一阶段含黄铁矿石英脉(样品编号:180725-02);(d)第一阶段含黄铁矿石英脉(样品编号:181018-11);(e)第一阶段强绿泥石化石英脉(样品编号:180726-03);(f)第二阶段弱绿泥石化石英脉(样品编号:180726-04)"

表1

通道地区金矿床样品信息"

样品编号矿区阶段样品特征样品编号矿区阶段样品特征
180724-04金坑V2号脉石英脉180725-10黄垢含矿石英脉
180724-05金坑含矿石英脉,下盘见褪色化带180725-11黄垢含矿石英脉
180724-11金坑含硫化物矿石180725-17黄垢含矿石英脉
180724-12金坑含硫化物矿石180725-18黄垢顺层含矿石英脉(未见硫化物)
180724-15金坑含矿石英脉(未见硫化物)180726-02茶溪陡立含矿石英脉
181018-11金坑含硫化物矿石180726-03茶溪陡倾含矿石英脉
180725-01黄垢含矿石英脉180726-04茶溪平缓含矿石英脉(未见硫化物)
180725-02黄垢含矿石英脉180726-05茶溪含矿石英脉
180725-04黄垢含硫化物矿石180726-06茶溪含矿石英脉
180725-16黄垢含黄铁矿变质砂岩

图5

通道地区金矿床流体包裹体特征"

表2

通道地区金矿床石英中Ⅰ型流体包裹体特征"

样品编号矿床成矿阶段矿物数量气/液比/%大小/μm均一温度/℃盐度[w(NaCl)]/%
变化峰值变化峰值
180726-06茶溪矿区石英2615~255~30155~297210~2204.9~11.76~7
180726-04茶溪矿区石英1915~205~20135~233160~1703.3~9.75~6
180724-04金坑矿区石英2010~203~10202~261210~2205.6~10.17~8
180724-15金坑矿区石英2010~205~30134~203150~1603.8~8.86~7
180725-10黄垢矿区石英1915~3015~30179~319220~2305.8~11.78~9
180725-11黄垢矿区石英2015~2515~25176~296230~2405.1~11.39~10

图6

通道地区金矿床流体包裹体均一温度—频率直方图"

图7

通道地区金矿床流体包裹体盐度—频率直方图"

表3

通道地区金矿床石英的H、O同位素组成"

样品编号矿床成矿阶段矿物δDδ18OquartzT/℃δ18OH2O
180726-02茶溪矿区石英-6517.12206.60
180726-03茶溪矿区石英-63172206.50
180726-05茶溪矿区石英-6316.22205.70
180726-06茶溪矿区石英-5116.52206.00
180724-04金坑矿区石英-8316.32205.80
180724-05金坑矿区石英-4416.22205.70
180724-15金坑矿区石英-7115.71601.08
180725-01黄垢矿区石英-6015.52305.55
180725-02黄垢矿区石英-33152305.05
180725-10黄垢矿区石英-7015.22305.25
180725-11黄垢矿区石英-6014.92304.95
180725-17黄垢矿区石英-5916.92306.95
180725-18黄垢矿区石英-71161601.38

图8

通道地区金矿床硫化物显微特征(a)金坑石英脉中的浸染状黄铁矿;(b)金坑石英脉中的浸染状毒砂;(c)黄垢石英脉中充填的他形黄铁矿;(d)黄垢变质砂岩中的自形黄铁矿(见环带);(e)茶溪石英脉中的黝铜矿;(f)茶溪石英脉中的黝铜矿;Py-黄铁矿;Qtz-石英;Ccp-黄铜矿;Apy-毒砂;Thr-黝铜矿"

表4

通道地区金矿床硫化物原位S同位素组成"

样品编号成矿阶段矿物δ34S/‰采样位置样品编号成矿阶段矿物δ34S/‰采样位置
180724-11-1黄铁矿+0.74金坑矿区180725-04-7黄铁矿+1.16黄垢矿区
180724-11-2黄铁矿-2.73金坑矿区180725-04-8黄铁矿+3.45黄垢矿区
180724-11-3黄铁矿-4.97金坑矿区180725-04-9黄铁矿+0.98黄垢矿区
180724-11-4黄铁矿-3.66金坑矿区180725-16-1黄铁矿-15.79黄垢矿区
180724-11-5黄铁矿-4.79金坑矿区180725-16-2黄铁矿-12.33黄垢矿区
180724-12-1毒砂-3.68金坑矿区180725-16-3黄铁矿-11.56黄垢矿区
180724-12-2毒砂-1.56金坑矿区180725-16-4黄铁矿-12.28黄垢矿区
180724-12-3毒砂-1.72金坑矿区180725-16-5黄铁矿-10.01黄垢矿区
180724-12-4毒砂-2.90金坑矿区180725-16-6黄铁矿-11.15黄垢矿区
180724-12-5毒砂-1.86金坑矿区180725-16-7黄铁矿-12.74黄垢矿区
181018-11-1黄铁矿-5.02金坑矿区180725-16-8黄铁矿-14.72黄垢矿区
181018-11-2黄铁矿-4.13金坑矿区180725-16-9黄铁矿-13.69黄垢矿区
181018-11-3黄铁矿-3.17金坑矿区180725-16-10黄铁矿-13.33黄垢矿区
181018-11-4黄铁矿-4.15金坑矿区180725-16-11黄铁矿-10.52黄垢矿区
181018-11-5黄铁矿-3.42金坑矿区180725-16-12黄铁矿-10.81黄垢矿区
181018-11-6黄铁矿-3.34金坑矿区180725-16-13黄铁矿-11.79黄垢矿区
180725-02-1黄铁矿+3.88黄垢矿区180725-16-14黄铁矿-6.49黄垢矿区
180725-02-2黄铁矿-6.23黄垢矿区180725-16-15黄铁矿-7.28黄垢矿区
180725-02-3黄铁矿-11.03黄垢矿区180725-16-16黄铁矿-11.74黄垢矿区
180725-02-4黄铁矿-12.16黄垢矿区180725-16-17黄铁矿-6.75黄垢矿区
180725-02-5黄铁矿+1.37黄垢矿区180726-06-1黝铜矿+6.59茶溪矿区
180725-04-1黄铁矿+0.40黄垢矿区180726-06-2黝铜矿+7.05茶溪矿区
180725-04-2黄铁矿-1.43黄垢矿区180726-06-3黝铜矿+4.18茶溪矿区
180725-04-3黄铁矿-6.68黄垢矿区180726-06-4黝铜矿+6.35茶溪矿区
180725-04-4黄铁矿-3.25黄垢矿区180726-06-5黝铜矿+7.37茶溪矿区
180725-04-5黄铁矿-3.44黄垢矿区180726-06-6黝铜矿+6.55茶溪矿区
180725-04-6黄铁矿-1.72黄垢矿区

图9

通道地区金矿S同位素频数分布直方图"

图10

通道地区金矿床石英流体包裹体均一温度与盐度双变量图"

图11

通道地区金矿床成矿流体的δD-δ18Ofluid图"

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