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Gold Science and Technology ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (2): 219-231.doi: 10.11872/j.issn.1005-2518.2023.02.132

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Chemical Characteristics of Apatite Minerals in Hydrothermal Gold Deposits with Different Metallogenic Temperatures in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi Region:A Discussion on the Particularity of Sources of Ore-forming Fluids of the Carlin-type Gold Deposits

Linlin LIU1,2(),Jun CHEN1,2,3(),Zaifeng YANG1,2,Lijuan DU1,2,3,Yanbing JI1,2,Lulin ZHENG4   

  1. 1.College of Resource and Environmental Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, Guizhou, China
    2.Key Laboratory of Karst Georesources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, Guizhou, China
    3.State Key Laboratory of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Guiyang 550081, Guizhou, China
    4.Mining College of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, Guizhou, China
  • Received:2022-09-30 Revised:2022-11-28 Online:2023-04-30 Published:2023-04-27
  • Contact: Jun CHEN;


Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi region,one of the most important gold mineralization areas in China,hosts many high temperature magmatic hydrothermal gold (copper) deposits,such as Pulang gold-bearing porphyry copper deposit,Beiya and Yaoan gold deposits,and low temperature hydrothermal gold deposits,namely carlin-type gold deposit,such as Badu,Nibao and Shuiyindong gold deposits.A lot of chemical studies of minerals,such as magnetite,pyrite and apatite have been carried out,and the abundant mineralogical geochemical data of trace elements in situ have been accumulated. However,the source materials and formation process of the deposits are still be disputed.Therefore,further statistical and comparative analyses of these data may provide a basis for revealing metallogenic information and guiding prospecting exploration.Due to the unique chemical characteristics,apatite can better preserve the important information of magma-hydrothermal evolution process,and is often used to define the fine metallogenic process of ore deposits.In this paper,the trace elements of hydrothermal apatite in high-temperature magma-hydrothermal deposits(Yao’an gold deposit and Pulang gold-bearing copper deposit) and low-temperature carlin-type gold deposits(Badu and Nibao gold deposits) have been collected and analyzed.It is found that the apatite in the high-temperature alkali-rich porphyry gold (copper) deposit is characterized by automorphic shape,high F and Cl contents,enriched LREE,and depleted HREE.In contrast,the apatite in the low-temperature carlin-type gold deposits is characterized by hypautomorphic and xenomorphic shapes,low F and Cl contents,enriched MREE.In addition,the δEu-δCe binary diagram and chondrite-normalized REE patterns revealed that the carlin-type gold deposits have higher oxygen fugacity than magmatic hydrothermal copper and gold deposits.Combined with the geochemical analysis of rare earth elements of stibnite in the Youjiang Basin,it is concluded that the enrichment characteristics of MREE in apatite(including fluorite and calcite) indicate that the low-temperature mineralizing fluid may be related to the special basin basement rock. In conclusion,apatite has unique geochemical characteristics in high temperature-medium and low temperature gold deposits,which can effectively reveal the type of ore deposit and the evolution process of ore-forming fluid.

Key words: apatite, trace elements, ore-forming fluid, carlin-type gold deposit, magmatic hydrothermal copper and gold deposits

CLC Number: 

  • P618.51


Location distribution and structural map of high-low temperature hydrothermal gold deposits in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi region(modified after Zhu et al.,2020)"


Middle rare earth (MREE) enrichment characteristics in fluorite,apatite and calcite,associated with antimony-gold mineralization in the low-temperature hydrothermal ore concentration area of Youjiang Basin"

Table 1

Characteristic values of some geochemical elements of apatite from different gold deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi region"



Diagram of F and Cl in apatite from different deposits in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi region"


Diagram of δEu-δCe in apatite from different deposits in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi region"


Distribution patterns of rare earth elements(average value) related to gold mineralization in apatite from different gold deposits in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi region"

Table 2

Rare earth element(REE)content of stibnite in Qinglong antimony deposit(×10-6)"

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