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黄金科学技术 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 3-13.doi: 10.11872/j.issn.1005-2518.2021.01.177

• 智慧矿山专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

矿井环境高精定位技术研究现状与发展

毕林1,2(),王黎明1,2(),段长铭3   

  1. 1.中南大学资源与安全工程学院,湖南 长沙 410083
    2.中南大学数字矿山研究中心,湖南 长沙 410083
    3.中移(上海)信息通信科技有限公司,湖北 武汉 200120
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-28 修回日期:2021-01-06 出版日期:2021-02-28 发布日期:2021-03-22
  • 通讯作者: 王黎明 E-mail:Mr.BiLin@163.com;1170794515@qq.com
  • 作者简介:毕林(1975-),男,四川通江人,副教授,从事GIS、数字矿山和铲运机无人化等方面的研究工作。Mr.BiLin@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目 “基于深度学习和距离场的复杂金属矿体三维建模技术研究”(41572317);国家重点研发计划项目“基于大数据的金属矿开采装备智能管控技术研发与示范”(2019YFC0605300)

Research Situation and Development of High-precision Positioning Technology for Underground Mine Environment

Lin BI1,2(),Liming WANG1,2(),Changming DUAN3   

  1. 1.School of Resources and Safety Engineering,Central South University,Changsha 410083,Hunan,China
    2.Digital Mine Research Center,Central South University,Changsha 410083,Hunan,China
    3.China Mobile (Shanghai) Information and Communication Technology Co. ,Ltd. ,Wuhan 200120,Hubei,China
  • Received:2020-09-28 Revised:2021-01-06 Online:2021-02-28 Published:2021-03-22
  • Contact: Liming WANG E-mail:Mr.BiLin@163.com;1170794515@qq.com

摘要:

地下矿山开采环境恶劣,井下设备的自动化、智能化发展势在必行。井下设备高精度自主定位技术是推动地下智能开采的关键技术之一。为了系统地了解和研究国内外矿井设备定位技术的发展情况和问题所在,基于国内外井下设备高精定位的研究现状分析,综合评述了当前井下定位的核心技术和发展前景。首先归纳了井下常用的环境感知传感器;然后根据井下设备定位的技术手段、硬件基础及算法特点,对当前的研究成果进行了归类分析;最后进行了总结展望,认为不需要外部设备辅助的多传感器融合技术(如基于SLAM的定位方法)是当前地下矿山井下设备定位发展的必然趋势。

关键词: 地下矿山, 自主定位, 无线通讯, 环境感知, SLAM, 多传感器融合

Abstract:

The environmental conditions in underground mines are harsh.In recent years,with the continuous increase in the mining depth of underground mines and the improvement of mining technology requirements,the underground mines are faced with the bad environment of high temperature and high ground pressure,and the working conditions of underground mines workers have become more complex.Ensuring the safety and health of underground personnel is of great significance to promote the stable development of mining enterprises,and it is also one of the core contents of contemporary mine intelligent construction.Therefore,with the rapid development of technologies in the fields of big data,Internet of Things(IOT),unmanned driving and three-dimensional visualization,it is imperative to develop the automation and intelligence of underground equipment.For underground mines,the high-precision autonomous positioning technology of downhole equip-ment is one of the key technologies to promote underground intelligent mining,and it is also the basic guarantee for the realization of automated mining of underground mining equipment.High-precision positioning can ensure that underground personnel and equipment are within an accurate measurable range.At the same time,it is also particularly critical to advance the construction of underground unmanned equipment mining platforms (such as the development of underground LHD).Based on the existing research results of high-precision positioning of underground equipment at home and aboard,after analyzing its development status,the categories of downhole equipment positioning sensors and the latest positioning technologies developed on this basis were summarized,which can be divided into two categories:One is the positioning technology that requires the addition of external equipment in the mine environment for auxiliary positioning,and the other is the positioning technology that only relies on the sensors carried by the equipment itself.The core technology and development prospects of underground mine high-precision positioning were put forward.This paper mainly introduces the current technical status,technical characteristics and development trend of underground mines equipment positioning.Firstly,the environmental sensing sensors commonly used in underground mines was summarized.Then,according to the technical means,hardware basis and algorithm characteristics of un-derground equipment positioning,the current research results were classified and analyzed.After analyzing and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of various positioning technologies,a summary and prospect were made,and it is considered that multi-sensor fusion technology without the assistance of external equipment(such as SLAM-based positioning method) is the inevitable trend of underground equipment positioning development in underground mines,so as to ensure the stability and accuracy of underground mine positioning to promote mine development smoothly entered the stage of true intelligence.

Key words: underground mine, autonomous positioning, wireless communication, environmental perception, SLAM, multi-sensor fusion

中图分类号: 

  • TD52

表 1

井下设备定位使用的传感器技术"

类别主要传感器技术精度主要特征
无线通信Zigbee、WIFI、Bluetooth、RFID、UWB、IrDA、VLC精度为米级至分米级通过组建WAN进行定位,需要提前铺设传感器节点。不同传感器在通讯距离(1~200 m)、频段、传输速率、传输容量、供电等方面具有不同特征
惯性陀螺仪、加速计、IMU、INS短时间内位移精度为亚米级实时性高,但存在累计误差、误差随测量时长增加
视觉单目、双目、多目相机及RGB-D相机精度能够达到分米级提取图像特征及测量深度,定位精度取决于算法
激光单线束(二维)和多线束(三维)激光雷达测量精度为厘米级抗干扰能力强,不受光照变动影响;测量精度和角度分辨率高,定位精度与算法有关
其他里程计(光电编码传感器)、角度传感器、磁场感应传感器等里程计精度跟标定及轮胎打滑等因素有关;角度传感器精度可达秒级里程计测量频率高,输出通常作为定位初值;角度传感器对设备运动模型进行约束,辅助定位;磁场传感器受地磁、温度变化和湿度变化等影响

图1

基于测距的定位原理图(王恩策,2019)(a)基于TOA的定位原理图;(b)基于TDOA的定位原理图;(c)基于AOA的定位原理图"

表 2

4种视觉传感器优缺点比较(王霞等,2020)"

传感器类型优点缺点
单目相机成本低、结构简单、速度快没有尺度和深度信息
双目相机可通过基线估计深度计算量大
RGB-D相机可估计像素级深度信息测量范围窄、噪声大
事件相机动态范围广、时间分辨率高、延时及功耗低噪声大、特征点提取复杂
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